Beyond being recognized for respiratory issues, COVID-19 is revealing itself to be a vascular disease as well. [19]

Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 can cause inflammation that puts patients at an elevated risk of blood clots. These blood clots can lodge in blood vessels causing serious conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) [20] [21] [22] and pulmonary embolism (PE), together known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of clot formation is further increased by non-COVID VTE risk factors, including sedentarism [23], immobility, and underlying medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and chronic respiratory disease. [24]

Circulation, Strength, and Range of Motion.

Studies suggest that exercise may minimize the negative impact of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and decreased ambulation.[25] Those with COVID-19 or simply in quarantine can use FitFoot to perform key exercises that can promote lower extremity circulation, strength, and range of motion. [26]

Additionally, FitFoot exercises may prevent the musculoskeletal deconditioning and functional deficits that can result from inactivity during quarantine, regardless of infection status.

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Conditions that FitFoot can Benefit in Relief and Recovery

Tight Calves – cramping in calves
Achilles tendinitis – pain in the heel, and along the length of the Achilles tendon, when walking, running, in the morning.
Venous insufficiency – swelling in legs/ankles, tight feeling in calves, itchy, painful legs, pain when walking that stop with rest, brown- colored skin, often near the ankles, varicose veins, ulcers that are sometimes hard to treat.
PAD –  weakness, hair loss, smooth, shiny skin, skin, cool to the touch, pain with walking, sores on feet/legs that don’t heal
Arthritis – Stiff/painful joints
Peripheral Neuropathy – Lower leg numbness, muscle weakness/twitching.  Loss of muscle mass,  loss of balance.
Restless Leg Syndrome – very strong urge to move the legs, due to uncomfortable, feeling in the legs, worse in the evenings or at night, when sitting or lying down. Moving relieves the discomfort for a short time.
Poor Circulation – leg pain, heaviness, aching, swelling, skin, dryness, tightness, itching, irritation, and muscle cramps
Plantar Fasciitis – stabbing pain in the heel worse in the morning or after sitting, after long periods of standing
Poor Balance – unsteady on feet, ankles turn/roll to the outside
Rehab from ankle/knee injury or surgery
O’Brien, Jane & Edwards, Helen & Finlayson, Kathleen & Kerr, Graham. (2012). Understanding the relationships between the calf muscle pump, ankle range of motion and healing for adults with venous leg ulcers: a review of the literature. wound practice and research: 2012.
[Semantic Scholars Link]
Xi Pan, Jiao-jiao Bai. Balance training in the intervention of fall risk in elderly with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A review. International Journal of Nursing Sciences. December 2014
[International Journal of Nursing Sciences Link]
Canonico ME, Siciliano R, Scudiero F, Sanna GD, Parodi G. The tug-of-war between coagulopathy and anticoagulant agents in patients with COVID-19. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2020 Jul 1;6(4):262-264.
[NLM Link]
Marco Narici, Giuseppe De Vito, Martino Franch, Antonio Paoli, Tatiana Moro, Giuseppe Marcolin, Bruno Grass, Giovanni Baldassarre, Lucrezia Zuccarelli, Gianni Biolo, Filippo Giorgio di Girolamo, Nicola Fiotti, Flemming Dela, Paul Greenhaff, Constantinos Maganaris. Impact of sedentarism due to the COVID-19 home confinement on neuromuscular, cardiovascular and metabolic health: Physiological and pathophysiological implications and recommendations for physical and nutritional countermeasures. Eur J Sport Sci. 2020 May 12;1-22.
[NLM Link]
Mi, Yuhong MM; Yan, Shufeng MM; Lu, Yanhui MD, PhD; Liang, Ying MM; Li, Chunsheng MD. Venous thromboembolism has the same risk factors as atherosclerosis, Medicine: August 2016 – Volume 95 – Issue 32 – p e4495
[NLM Link]
Blum E, Abdelwahed YS, Spiess E, Mueller-Werdan U, Leistner DM, Rosada A. COVID-19 #StayAtHome Restrictions and Deep Vein Thrombosis: Case Report. Interact J Med Res. 2021 Jan 14;10(1):e23443.
[NLM Link]
Rosendaal, F.R. Causes of venous thrombosis. Thrombosis J 14, 24 (2016)
[Thrombosis journal Link]
Elissa Driggin, Mahesh V Madhavan, Behnood Bikdeli, Taylor Chuich, Justin Laracy, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Tyler S Brown, Caroline Der Nigoghossian, David A Zidar, Jennifer Haythe, Daniel Brodie, Joshua A Beckman, Ajay J Kirtane, Gregg W Stone, Harlan M Krumholz, Sahil A Parikh. Cardiovascular Considerations for Patients, Health Care Workers, and Health Systems During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 May 12;75(18):2352-2371.
[NLM Link]
Torsten Willenberg , Anette Schumacher, Beatrice Amann-Vesti, Vincenzo Jacomella, Christoph Thalhammer, Nicolas Diehm, Iris Baumgartner, Marc Husmann. Impact of obesity on venous hemodynamics of the lower limbs. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep;52(3):664-8.
[NLM Link]
Phoebe A Stapleto, Milinda E James, Adam G Goodwill, Jefferson C Frisbee. Obesity and vascular dysfunction. Pathophysiology. 2008 Aug;15(2):79-89.
[NLM Link]
Jason Tak-Man Cheung, Ming Zhang, Kai-Nan An. Effect of Achilles tendon loading on plantar fascia tension in the standing foot. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006 Feb;21(2):194-203.
[NLM Link]
Gwendolyn Vuurberg, Alexander Hoorntje, Lauren M Wink, Brent F W van der Doelen, Michel P van den Bekerom, Rienk Dekker, C Niek van Dijk, Rover Krips, Masja C M Loogman, Milan L Ridderikho, Frank F Smithuis, Sjoerd A S Stufkens, Evert A L M Verhagen, Rob A de Bie, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs. Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ankle sprains: update of an evidence-based clinical guideline. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Aug;52(15):956.
[NLM Link]
Bijan Najaf , Ryan T Crews, James S Wrobel. A novel plantar stimulation technology for improving protective sensation and postural control in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blinded, randomized study Gerontology. 2013;59(5):473-80.

[NLM Link]

Angela Höhne, Sufyan Ali, Christian Stark, Gert-Peter Brüggemann. Reduced plantar cutaneous sensation modifies gait dynamics, lower-limb kinematics and muscle activity during walking. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Nov;112(11):3829-38.

[NLM Link]

Monteiro RL, Sartor CD, Ferreira JSSP, Dantas MGB, Bus SA, Sacco ICN. Protocol for evaluating the effects of a foot-ankle therapeutic exercise program on daily activity, foot-ankle functionality, and biomechanics in people with diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Nov 14;19(1):400.

[NLM Link]

A N Nicolaides, Investigation of chronic venous insufficiency: A consensus statement.  Circulation 2000 Nov 14;102(20):E126-63.

[NLM Link]

Young Jin Youn, Juyong Lee. Chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins of the lower extremities. Korean J Intern Med. 2019 Mar;34(2):269-283.

[NLM Link]

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